The origin of the Catholic Church begins with Jesus and his teachings according to the Catholic tradition (c. 4 BC- c. AD 30) and the Catholic church is a continuation of the early Christian founded by the discipline of Jesus. The Church considers its Bishop to be the heir to the apostle of Jesus and the leader of the Church, the Bishop of Rome (also known as the Pope) to be the sole successor to St. Peter, who ministered in Rome in the first century AD, following Jesus’ election as a church leader. By the end of the 2nd century, in regional synods, bishops started to congregate to address doctrinal and political problems. The Bishop of Rome started to serve as a court of appeal for issues in the 3rd century that other bishops were unable to address.
Despite persecution due to clashes with the pagan state religion, Christianity spread throughout the early Roman empire. The hardships of the Early Church were minimized by Emperor Constantine’ s legalization of Christianity in 313. 1. In 380, Emperor Theodosius 1, by the decree of an empire, Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, which would persist until the collapse of the Western Empire, and later, until the fall of Constantinople, with the Eastern Roman Empire. At this time, according to Eusebius, five main sees (jurisdictions within the Catholic Church) were considered during the era of the seven Ecumenical Council: Rome, Constatratinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexendra, recognized as the Pentarchy.
While Rome itself was devastated in 850, and Constantinople besieged, the battles of Toulouse preserved the Christian West. In the 11th century, already tense relationships formed into the East- West schism between the predominantly Greek church in the East, and the Latin church in the West, partly because of papal authority disputes. The Fourth Crusade, and the Renegade Crusaders’ sacking of Constantinople, proved the final breach. The Church was engaged in a process of reform and renewal prior to and throughout the 16th century. Reform is regarded as the counter- reformation during the 16th century. Despite suffering a decline in its grip on European populations due to the growth of protestartism and also because of theological skepticism during and after the enlightenment, Catholicism spread widely throughout the world in subsequent centuries. In the 1960s, the Second Vatican City made the most important reforms to Catholic traditions since the Trent Council four centuries ago.